Reformation Networks

To the extent to which existing data permit, the diagram shows all correspondents of the pictured major protagonists of

the Reformation. Although many letters have been lost, it is clear that both of the main reformers were prolific corres-

pondents. Around 4,300 letters by Luther, and around 7,500 by Philipp Melanchthon have been preserved. Each of the

two had his own circle of correspondents.

 

Ulrich von Hutten was well-integrated into the Reformation network—unlike Thomas Müntzer, who appears an outsider.

They had hardly any contact with representatives of the Catholic Church (the Pope, cardinals), who had their own

(Catholic) correspondents. The artists were networked with imperial politicians and reformers alike, but wrote

comparatively few letters. Only seven letters by Lucas Cranach the Elder have survived. Further research will be

necessary to build a more complete image of the Reformation networks.

 

THE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE

REFORMATION’S PROTAGONISTS

Reformation Networks

To the extent to which existing data permit, the diagram shows all correspondents of the

pictured major protagonists of the Reformation. Although many letters have been lost, it is

clear that both of the main reformers were prolific correspondents. Around 4,300 letters by

Luther, and around 7,500 by Philipp Melanchthon have been preserved. Each of the two had

his own circle of correspondents.

 

Ulrich von Hutten was well-integrated into the Reformation network—unlike Thomas Müntzer,

who appears an outsider. They had hardly any contact with representatives of the Catholic

Church (the Pope, cardinals), who had their own (Catholic) correspondents. The artists were

networked with imperial politicians and reformers alike, but wrote comparatively few letters.

Only seven letters by Lucas Cranach the Elder have survived. Further research will be necessary

to build a more complete image of the Reformation networks.

 

 

THE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE

REFORMATION’S PROTAGONISTS

Reformation Networks

To the extent to which existing data permit, the diagram shows all correspondents of the

pictured major protagonists of the Reformation. Although many letters have been lost, it is

clear that both of the main reformers were prolific correspondents. Around 4,300 letters by

Luther, and around 7,500 by Philipp Melanchthon have been preserved. Each of the two had

his own circle of correspondents.

Ulrich von Hutten was well-integrated into the Reformation network—unlike Thomas

Müntzer, who appears an outsider. They had hardly any contact with representatives of

the Catholic Church (the Pope, cardinals), who had their own (Catholic) correspondents.

The artists were networked with imperial politicians and reformers alike, but wrote

comparatively few letters. Only seven letters by Lucas Cranach the Elder have survived.

Further research will be necessary to build a more complete image of the Reformation

networks.

THE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE

REFORMATION’S PROTAGONISTS

Reformation

Networks

To the extent to which existing data

permit, the diagram shows all corre-

spondents of the pictured major pro-

tagonists of the Reformation. Although

many letters have been lost, it is clear

that both of the main reformers were

prolific correspondents. Around 4,300

letters by Luther, and around 7,500 by

Philipp Melanchthon have been pre-

served. Each of the two had his own

circle of correspondents.

 

Ulrich von Hutten was well-integrated

into the Reformation network—unlike

Thomas Müntzer, who appears an out-

sider. They had hardly any contact with

representatives of the Catholic Church

(the Pope, cardinals), who had their own

(Catholic) correspondents. The artists

were networked with imperial politi-

cians and reformers alike, but wrote

comparatively few letters. Only seven

letters by Lucas Cranach the Elder have

survived. Further research will be nece

ssary to build a more complete image of

the Reformation networks.

THE CORRESPONDENCE

OF THE REFORMATION’S

PROTAGONISTS

Reformers

Princes

Artists

Humanists

Correspondents

INTENSITY OF

CORRESPONDENCE

COUNTED BY LETTERS

1–10 letters

10–100 letters

> 100 letters

Chronological Distribution

Many of the letters were not dated by the senders. Despite this lack of clarity, an interesting picture emerges from the

dated letters. The reformers’ correspondences have been preserved evenly, with a significant decline after Luther’s

death (1546). Most of the preserved letters from politicians date from the time of the Schmalkaldic War between

Emperor Charles V and the Protestant princes (1546/47).

NUMBER

OF LETTERS

UNDATED

LETTERS

250

5502

100

10

1501

1506

1511

1516

1521

1526

1531

1536

1541

1546

1551

1556

1560

Chronological Distribution

Many of the letters were not dated by the senders. Despite this lack of clarity, an interesting

picture emerges from the dated letters. The reformers’ correspondences have been preserved

evenly, with a significant decline after Luther’s death (1546). Most of the preserved letters from

politicians date from the time of the Schmalkaldic War between Emperor Charles V and

the Protestant princes (1546/47).

NUMBER

OF LETTERS

UNDATED

LETTERS

5502

250

100

10

1501

1506

1511

1516

1521

1526

1531

1536

1541

1546

1551

1556

1560

Chronological Distribution

Many of the letters were not dated by the senders. Despite this lack of clarity, an interesting

picture emerges from the dated letters. The reformers’ correspondences have been preser-

ved evenly, with a significant decline after Luther’s death (1546). Most of the preserved

letters from politicians date from the time of the Schmalkaldic War between Emperor

Charles V and the Protestant princes (1546/47).

UNDATED

LETTERS

NUMBER

OF LETTERS

250

5502

100

10

1501

1506

1511

1516

1521

1526

1531

1536

1541

1546

1551

1556

1560

Chronological

Distribution

Many of the letters were not dated by

the senders. Despite this lack of clarity,

an interesting picture emerges from the

dated letters. The reformers’ corre-

spondences have been preserved

evenly, with a significant decline after

Luther’s death (1546). Most of the pre-

served letters from politicians date from

the time of the Schmalkaldic War be-

tween Emperor Charles V and the

Protestant princes (1546/47).

UNDATED

LETTERS

NUMBER OF

LETTERS

250

5502

100

10

1501

1506

1511

1516

1521

1526

1531

1536

1541

1546

1551

1556

1560

Credits

Research

Anne-Simone RousMareile AlferiIngrid DettmannJohanna FurgberAnnemarie KnöfelMike LeskeMonika und Dietrich Lücke (Cranach)Christine Mundhenk (Melanchthon)Brigitte ParscheNiels ReidelJulius RochSteffi Wachsmann

Graphic

Fabian Dinklage

References

Die Datengrundlage bildet die jeweils zugängliche Briefedition.Dr. Johannes Bugenhagens Briefwechsel, Stettin 1888.Ulrich von Hutten: Vlrichi Hvtteni Eqvitis Germani Opera Qvæ Reperiri Potvervnt Omnia: Briefe von 1521 bis 1525 Bd. 1,2 / 2, hrsg. von Eduard Böcking, Leipzig, 1859D. Martin Luthers Werke, Weimar, 1883-2009 (Weimarer Ausgabe), Bde: WA.BR 1-18Melanchthons Briefwechsel. Kritische und kommentierte Gesamtausgabe, im Auftrag der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, hrsg. v. Heinz Scheible, seit Band T 11 von Christine Mundhenk. Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt 1977 ff.Thomas Müntzers Briefwechsel, hrsg. von Heinrich Böhmer, Leipzig, 1931Korrespondenz des Kaisers Karl V. Aus dem königlichen Archiv und der Bibliothèque de Bourgogne zu Brüssel, 3 Bde., hrsg. v. Karl Lanz, Leipzig, 1844-1846Politische Korrespondenz des Herzogs und Kurfürsten Moritz von Sachsen, hrsg. v. Erich Brandenburg, ab Bd. 3 von Johannes Hermann, Günther Wartenberg und Christian Winter, 5 Bde., 1900-1904/1992-2006Cranach Digital Archive, hrsg. v. der Stiftung Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf und der Technischen Hochschule Köln, Link, Stand: 22.06.2016Albrecht Dürer: Schriften und Briefe, hrsg. v. Ernst Ullmann, Leipzig, 1993Dürers Briefe, Tagebücher und Reime. Nebst einem Anhange von Zuschriften an und für Dürer, hrsg. v. Moritz Thausing, Wien, 1872

Image Sources

Uffzien, Lucas Cranach the Younger [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;Museo del Prado, Albrecht Dürer [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;Kupferstichkabinett Berlin, By Erhard Schön (ca. 1491-1542) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;Nationalmuseum Stockholm, Lucas Cranach the Elder [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;Karl V. By Juan Pantoja de la Cruz, inspiré sur Tiziano Vecellio (english Wiki) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Lucas Cranach the Younger [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;Evangelisches Predigerseminar Wittenberg, Lucas Cranach the Elder [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, Lucas Cranach the Elder [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;